This Oxfam position paper contains Oxfam's statement towards the protection of farmers' and plant breeders' rights. Farmers’ Rights to save, reuse, exchange and sell farm-saved seed/propagating material, to maintain and create agro-biodiversity, and to manage plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA), need to be protected and promoted. This applies particularly to smallholder farmers who have always managed and adapted their agro-biodiversity in the face of changing conditions by conserving, exchanging and adapting seeds thereby ensuring local and global food and nutrition security. The implementation of plant breeders’ rights requires careful consideration in order not to weaken the role of smallholder farmers in their management of plant genetic resources.